Hierarchies remove scaling properties in Agile Software projects

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There is a lot of interest in scaling Agile Software Development. And that is a good thing. Software projects of all sizes benefit from what we have learned over the years about Agile Software Development.

Many frameworks have been developed to help us implement Agile at scale. We have: SAFe, DAD, Large-scale Scrum, etc. I am also aware of other models for scaled Agile development in specific industries, and those efforts go beyond what the frameworks above discuss or tackle.

However, scaling as a problem is neither a software nor an Agile topic. Humanity has been scaling its activities for millennia, and very successfully at that. The Pyramids in Egypt, the Panama Canal in central America, the immense railways all over the world, the Airbus A380, etc.

All of these scaling efforts share some commonalities with software and among each other, but they are also very different. I’d like to focus on one particular aspect of scaling that has a huge impact on software development: communication.

The key to scaling software development

We’ve all heard countless accounts of projects gone wrong because of lack (inadequate, or just plain bad) communication. And typically, these problems grow with the size of the team. Communication is a major challenge in scaling any human endeavor, and especially one – like software – that so heavily depends on successful communication patterns.

In my own work in scaling software development I’ve focused on communication networks. In fact, I believe that scaling software development is first an exercise in understanding communication networks. Without understanding the existing and necessary communication networks in large projects we will not be able to help those project adapt. In many projects, a different approach is used: hierarchical management with strict (and non-adaptable) communication paths. This approach effectively reduces the adaptability and resilience in software projects.

Scaling software development is first and foremost an exercise in understanding communication networks.

Even if hierarchies can successfully scale projects where communication needs are known in advance (like building a railway network for example), hierarchies are very ineffective at handling adaptive communication needs. Hierarchies slow communication down to a manageable speed (manageable for those at the top), and reduce the amount of information transferred upwards (managers filter what is important – according to their own view).

In a software project those properties of hierarchy-bound communication networks restrict valuable information from reaching stakeholders. As a consequence one can say that hierarchies remove scaling properties from software development. Hierarchical communication networks restrict information reach without concern for those who would benefit from that information because the goal is to “streamline” communication so that it adheres to the hierarchy.

In software development, one must constantly map, develop and re-invent the communication networks to allow for the right information to reach the relevant stakeholders at all times. Hence, the role of project management in scaled agile projects is to curate communication networks: map, intervene, document, and experiment with communication networks by involving the stakeholders.

Scaling agile software development is – in its essential form – a work of developing and evolving communication networks.

A special thank you note to Esko Kilpi and Clay Shirky for the inspiration for this post through their writings on organizational patterns and value networks in organizations.

Picture credit: John Hammink, follow him on twitter

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